(HOUSE OF REFUGE). Sammelband of Nine Pamphlets. Contemporary full speckled calf, gilt-ruled spine, compartments gilt, black morocco spine label, gilt-chamfered edges. Light scattered foxing, else very good. Established on 7 February 1826, the Philadelphia House of Refuge provided an alternative to prisons for incarcerating juvenile delinquents and child vagrants. Although the House of Refuge purported to aid poor and delinquent children, in practice it became a paternalist organization that strove to implement social control over the city's lower classes. A project of wealthy merchants, philanthropists, and politicians, the House of Refuge began with a Board of Managers that included John Sergeant (1779-1852) and Alexander Henry (1763-1847), two of the city's wealthiest men. The Board of Managers attained $20,000 in government grants and more than $8,000 in private donations. This endowment of public and private funds allowed the board to purchase a five-acre plot at Fairmount and Ridge Avenues in April 1827. By 1 December 1828, construction was complete and the House of Refuge was ready for its first class of 80 boys and girls. Earlier practices of incarcerating children in prisons perturbed reformers, who argued that delinquents deserved a place of rehabilitation rather than punishment. Advocates for the House of Refuge suggested that delinquents needed "an asylum for poverty and helplessness and ignorance, not a prison for malefactors." White youth under 21 could be referred to the institution through a number of means, such as through an order of a judge or the mayor. As a result, youth who had been abandoned, convicted of a crime, or homeless, became eligible to stay at the House of Refuge for at least one year. Eastern Penitentiary was another example of Philadelphia social engineering. Designed to hold each prisoner in solitary confinement with their own gardens, it brought Tocqueville to the United States to consider its applications for France. 1. [SERGEANT, John]. An Address from the Managers of the House of Refuge to Their Fellow Citizens. Phila.: Printed on the Vertical Press, by D. & S. Nealy, 1826. 1st ed. 18pp. Folding frontis. 2. [VAUX, Roberts]. An Address from the Managers of the House of Refuge to Their Fellow Citizens. Phila.: Printed by Solomon W. Conrad, 1828. 1st ed. 8pp. 3. .